Glutaric Acidemia, Type IIc (ETFDH)

Glutaric acidemia, type IIc is a pan-ethnic autosomal recessive disease caused by pathogenic variants in the gene ETFDH. It is a metabolic disease which prevents the body from properly breaking down proteins and fats. The clinical presentation is highly variable. In the neonatal form of the disease, affected infants may have congenital anomalies, and the disease is usually fatal very early in life. In the later onset form, affected individuals may develop symptoms in childhood or adulthood, or may remain asymptomatic. Symptoms include episodes of metabolic crisis, which include lethargy, vomiting, muscle weakness, and enlarged liver. Life expectancy depends on the severity of disease. Different types of pathogenic ETFDH variants have been correlated with disease severity. Therefore, the phenotype may be somewhat predicted based on the inherited variants.

For information about carrier frequency and residual risk, please see the residual risk table.